Tuesday, July 25, 2017

What are the Benefits of RDA?

Library Cataloging
Library Cataloging Metadata
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF RDA? / WHY IS RDA NEEDED?


RDA builds on the strengths of AACR2 but has some new features that make it more useful for description as a cataloging code for the digital environment in which libraries now operate.
  • RDA is better at catering for digital resources and for resources with multiple characteristics and will provide more guidance on the creation of authority headings.
  • RDA has been developed with the end-user in mind.
  • RDA provides a consistent, flexible and extensible framework for the description of all types of resources, including digital resources and those with multiple characteristics.
  • RDA is compatible with internationally established principles, models, and standards.
  • RDA is compatible with a range of encoding schemas, such as MODS, Dublin Core, ONIX and MARC.  It will allow library bibliographic records to be integrated with those produced by other metadata communities, and to move into the digital environment beyond library catalogs.
  • RDA will enable, with systems support, the grouping together of bibliographic records for different editions, translations or formats of a work, to achieve a more meaningful display of data for users.
  • RDA is a Web-based product, which enables catalogers to move between related instructions using hyperlinks and to integrate their own institutional policies.  
  • RDA is a transitional stepping stone that requires only small changes to catalog records but moves the metadata in catalogs much closer to full utilization of FRBR models.

REFERENCES

SEE ALSO

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  • Written 2017-07-25

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Tuesday, July 18, 2017

Information Management

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
INFORMATION MANAGEMENT  Information management (IM) concerns a cycle of organizational activity: the acquisition of information from one or more sources, the custodianship and the distribution of that information to those who need it, and its ultimate disposition through archiving or deletion.

This cycle of organisational involvement with information involves a variety of stakeholders: for example those who are responsible for assuring the quality, accessibility and utility of acquired information, those who are responsible for its safe storage and disposal, and those who need it for decision making. Stakeholders might have rights to originate, change, distribute or delete information according to organizational information management policies.

Information management embraces all the generic concepts of management, including: planning, organizing, structuring, processing, controlling, evaluation and reporting of information activities, all of which is needed in order to meet the needs of those with organisational roles or functions that depend on information. These generic concepts allow the information to be presented to the audience or the correct group of people. After individuals are able to put that information to use it then gains more value.

Information management is closely related to, and overlaps with, the management of data, systems, technology, processes and – where the availability of information is critical to organisational success – strategy. This broad view of the realm of information management contrasts with the earlier, more traditional view, that the life cycle of managing information is an operational matter that requires specific procedures, organisational capabilities and standards that deal with information as a product or a service.

NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article.

REFERENCES
  1. Information management. Wikipedia. Accessed July 15, 2017.

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  • Written 2017-07-18

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Knowledge Management

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT  Knowledge management (KM) is the process of creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organisation. It refers to a multidisciplinary approach to achieving organisational objectives by making the best use of knowledge.

An established discipline since 1991, KM includes courses taught in the fields of business administration, information systems, management, library, and information sciences. Other fields may contribute to KM research, including information and media, computer science, public health and public policy. Several universities offer dedicated master's degrees in knowledge management.

Many large companies, public institutions and non-profit organisations have resources dedicated to internal KM efforts, often as a part of their business strategy, IT, or human resource management departments. Several consulting companies provide advice regarding KM to these organisations.

Knowledge management efforts typically focus on organisational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, integration and continuous improvement of the organisation. These efforts overlap with organisational learning and may be distinguished from that by a greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and on encouraging the sharing of knowledge.[2][8] KM is an enabler of organisational learning.

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  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article.

REFERENCES
  1. Knowledge management. Wikipedia. Accessed July 15, 2017.

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  • Written 2017-07-18

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Saturday, July 15, 2017

Library Management

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
LIBRARY MANAGEMENT  Library management is a sub-discipline of institutional management that focuses on specific issues faced by libraries and library management professionals. Library management encompasses normal managerial tasks, as well as intellectual freedom and fundraising responsibilities. Issues faced in library management frequently overlap with those faced in managing non-profit organizations.

The basic functions of library management include, but are not limited to: planning and negotiating the acquisition of materials, Interlibrary Loan (ILL) requests, stacks maintenance, overseeing fee collection, event planning, fundraising, and human resources.

NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article.

REFERENCES
  1. Library management. Wikipedia. Accessed July 15, 2017.

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  • Written 2017-07-15

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Library and Information Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE  Library and information science (LIS) (sometimes given as the plural library and information sciences) or as "library and information studies" is a merging of library science and information science. The joint term is associated with schools of library and information science (abbreviated to "SLIS"). In the last part of the 1960s, schools of librarianship, which generally developed from professional training programs (not academic disciplines) to university institutions during the second half of the 20th century, began to add the term "information science" to their names. The first school to do this was at the University of Pittsburgh in 1964. More schools followed during the 1970s and 1980s, and by the 1990s almost all library schools in the USA had added information science to their names. Weaver Press: Although there are exceptions, similar developments have taken place in other parts of the world. In Denmark, for example, the 'Royal School of Librarianship' changed its English name to The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 1997. Exceptions include Tromsø, Norway, where the term documentation science is the preferred name of the field, France, where information science and communication studies form one interdiscipline, and Sweden, where the fields of Archival science, Library science and Museology have been integrated as Archival, Library and Museum studies.

In spite of various trends to merge the two fields, some consider the two original disciplines, library science and information science, to be separate. However, the tendency today is to use the terms as synonyms or to drop the term "library" and to speak about information departments or I-schools. There have also been attempts to revive the concept of documentation and to speak of Library, information and documentation studies (or science).

USED FOR
  • LIS

NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article.

REFERENCES
  1. Library and information science. Wikipedia. Accessed July 15, 2017.

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Information Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
INFORMATION SCIENCE  Information science is an interdisciplinary field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information. Practitioners within and outside of the field study application and usage of knowledge in organizations along with the interaction between people, organizations, and any existing information systems with the aim of creating, replacing, improving, or understanding information systems. Information science is often (mistakenly) considered a branch of computer science; however, it predates computer science and is a broad, interdisciplinary field, incorporating not only aspects of computer science, but often diverse fields such as archival science, cognitive science, commerce, communications, law, library science, museology, management, mathematics, philosophy, public policy, social sciences, as well as all the fields of study because information exists in all the fields whether it has to do with technology or not. That is why different roles (IT Admin, C.S. engineer, etc.) in Information technology and Computer Science major exist to assist information for all the fields of study.

Information science should not be confused with information theory or library science. Information theory is the study of the types of communications we use, such as verbal, signal transmission, encoding, and others. Information science as an academic discipline is often taught in combination with Library science as Library and Information Science. Library science as such is a field related to the dissemination of information through libraries making use of the principles of information science. Information science deals with all the processes and techniques pertaining to the information life cycle, including capture, generation, packaging, dissemination, transformation, refining, repackaging, usage, storage, communication, protection, presentation etc. in any possible manner.

NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article.

REFERENCES
  1. Information science. Wikipedia. Accessed July 15, 2017.

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  • Written 2017-07-15

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Wednesday, July 12, 2017

Library Science

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
LIBRARY SCIENCE  A Library science (often termed library studies, library and information science, bibliothecography, library economy) is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information. Martin Schrettinger, a Bavarian librarian, coined the discipline within his work (1808-1828) Versuch eines vollständigen Lehrbuchs der Bibliothek-Wissenschaft oder Anleitung zur vollkommenen Geschäftsführung eines Bibliothekars. Rather than classifying information based on nature-oriented elements, as was previously done in his Bavarian library, Schrettinger organized books in alphabetical order. The first American school for library science was founded by Melvil Dewey at Columbia University in 1887. It is an aspect of the broader field of librarianship.

Historically, library science has also included archival science. This includes how information resources are organized to serve the needs of select user groups, how people interact with classification systems and technology, how information is acquired, evaluated and applied by people in and outside of libraries as well as cross-culturally, how people are trained and educated for careers in libraries, the ethics that guide library service and organization, the legal status of libraries and information resources, and the applied science of computer technology used in documentation and records management.

There is no generally agreed-upon distinction between the terms library science, librarianship, and library and information science, and to a certain extent they are interchangeable, perhaps differing most significantly in connotation. The term library and information science (LIS) is most often used; most librarians consider it as only a terminological variation, intended to emphasize the scientific and technical foundations of the subject and its relationship with information science. LIS should not be confused with information theory, the mathematical study of the concept of information. Library and information science can also be seen as an integration of the two fields of library science and information science, which were separate at one point. Library philosophy has been contrasted with library science as the study of the aims and justifications of librarianship as opposed to the development and refinement of techniques.


USED FOR
  • Librarianship

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  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article.

REFERENCES
  1. Library science. Wikipedia. Accessed July 12, 2017.

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  • Written 2017-07-12

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Library

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
LIBRARY  A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque.
The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the very close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria.
A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing very large amounts of information with a variety of digital tools.


USED FOR
  • Libraries

NOTE
  • This article is a Stub. It will be expanded to achieve the level of a proper encyclopedia article.

REFERENCES
  1. Library. Wikipedia. Accessed July 12, 2017.

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Sunday, July 9, 2017

Why RDA after AACR2 (not AACR3)

Library Cataloging
Library Cataloging Metadata
WHY IT WAS NECESSARY TO ISSUE A BRAND NEW CATALOGING STANDARD? WHY RDA AFTER AACR2 (NOT AACR3)? 


AACR2 was first published in 1978. Although it has been updated many times, it is largely designed for an environment dominated by the card catalog. The International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR that was held in Toronto in 1997 identified substantive problems with AACR2. Although the updates issued in the years following that conference addressed some of these problems, it became clear that a fundamental rethinking of the code was required to respond fully to the challenges and opportunities of the digital world.

In April 2005, the Joint Steering Committee for the Revision of AACR (JSC) and its parent organization, the Committee of Principals (CoP) determined from comments received on the revision of part I of AACR3 that they needed to change their approach. After reviewing a number of alternatives, they decided that a new standard designed for the digital environment was more appropriate. Their vision included guidelines and instructions that would cover description and access for all digital and analog resources, resulting in records that could be used in a variety of digital environments (the Internet, Web OPACs, etc.).

The name AACR3 was dropped as the successor of AACR2 and the new standard was named as RDA: Resource Description & Access which was initially released in June 2010. 


REFERENCES

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  • Written 2017-07-06

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Saturday, July 8, 2017

Stub

A stub is an article that, although providing some useful information, is too short to provide encyclopedic coverage of a subject, and that is capable of expansion.

Stub articles will be expanded to achieve the level of proper encyclopedia articles.

List of Stub Articles in Librarianship Studies & Information Technology

Thursday, July 6, 2017

Resource Description and Access

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
RESOURCE DESCRIPTION AND ACCESS (RDA)  RDA stands for “Resource Description and Access” and is the title of the standard, that is the successor to AACR2. Resource Description and Access (RDA) is a standard for descriptive cataloging providing instructions and guidelines on formulating bibliographic data. Resource Description & Access (RDA) is a set of cataloging instructions based on FRBR and FRAD, for producing the description and name and title access points representing a resource. RDA offers libraries the potential to change significantly how bibliographic data is created and used. RDA is a standard for resource description and access designed for the digital world. It provides (i) A flexible framework for describing all resources (analog and digital) that is extensible for new types of material, (ii) Data that is readily adaptable to new and emerging database structures, (iii) Data that is compatible with existing records in online library catalogs. RDA is a package of data elements, guidelines, and instructions for creating library and cultural heritage resource metadata that are well-formed according to international models for user-focused linked data applications.  RDA goes beyond earlier cataloging codes in that it provides guidelines on cataloging digital resources and places a stronger emphasis on helping users find, identify, select, and obtain the information they want. RDA also supports the clustering of bibliographic records in order to show relationships between works and their creators. 


Contents

  • RDA : Glossary of Library & Information Science
  • Why is it necessary to issue a brand new standard?
  • What are the benefits of RDA? / Why is RDA needed?
  • RDA Infographic



Why RDA after AACR2 (not AACR3)? Why it was Necessary to Issue a Brand New Standard? 

AACR2 was first published in 1978. Although it has been updated many times, it is largely designed for an environment dominated by the card catalog. The International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR that was held in Toronto in 1997 identified substantive problems with AACR2. Although the updates issued in the years following that conference addressed some of these problems, it became clear that a fundamental rethinking of the code was required to respond fully to the challenges and opportunities of the digital world.

In April 2005, the Joint Steering Committee for the Revision of AACR (JSC) and its parent organization, the Committee of Principals (CoP) determined from comments received on the revision of part I of AACR3 that they needed to change their approach. After reviewing a number of alternatives, they decided that a new standard designed for the digital environment was more appropriate. Their vision included guidelines and instructions that would cover description and access for all digital and analog resources, resulting in records that could be used in a variety of digital environments (the Internet, Web OPACs, etc.).

The name AACR3 was dropped as the successor of AACR2 and the new standard was named as RDA: Resource Description & Access which was initially released in June 2010.

[Source: Why RDA after AACR2 (not AACR3)]



What are the Benefits of RDA? Why is RDA Needed?

RDA builds on the strengths of AACR2 but has some new features that make it more useful for description as a cataloging code for the digital environment in which libraries now operate.
  • RDA is better at catering for digital resources and for resources with multiple characteristics and will provide more guidance on the creation of authority headings.
  • RDA has been developed with the end-user in mind.
  • RDA provides a consistent, flexible and extensible framework for the description of all types of resources, including digital resources and those with multiple characteristics.
  • RDA is compatible with internationally established principles, models, and standards.
  • RDA is compatible with a range of encoding schemas, such as MODS, Dublin Core, ONIX and MARC.  It will allow library bibliographic records to be integrated with those produced by other metadata communities, and to move into the digital environment beyond library catalogs.
  • RDA will enable, with systems support, the grouping together of bibliographic records for different editions, translations or formats of a work, to achieve a more meaningful display of data for users.
  • RDA is a Web-based product, which enables catalogers to move between related instructions using hyperlinks and to integrate their own institutional policies.  
  • RDA is a transitional stepping stone that requires only small changes to catalog records but moves the metadata in catalogs much closer to full utilization of FRBR models.


RDA Infographic

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USED FOR
  • RDA
  • Resource Description & Access

REFERENCES

SEE ALSO
  • Cataloging
  • Cataloging & Metadata (Highlights of information about Cataloging and Metadata available in Librarianship Studies & Information Technology Blog)

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  • Written 2017-07-06

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Thursday, May 4, 2017

POPSI (Postulate-Based Permuted Subject Indexing)

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
POPSI (POSTULATE-BASED PERMUTED SUBJECT INDEXING)   The inherent weakness of chain indexing has been its dependence on a scheme of classification. Another weakness was its disappearing chain. In view of this situation, the information scientists at the Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Banglore, directed themselves from these limitations; the Postulate Based Permuted Subject Indexing (POPSI) is the results of these efforts. It was developed by Ganesh Bhattacharya.

POPSI does not depend on the Class Number but is based on Ranganathan’s postulates and principles of general theory of classification.

POPSI  is specifically based on:

(a) a set of postulated Elementary Categories (ECs) of the elements fit to form component of subject proposition.

Elementary Categories are:

Discipline (D) - It covers conventional field of study, e.g. Chemistry, Physics, etc.,

Entity (E) - e.g. Plant, Lens, Eye, Book, etc.,

Action (A) - e.g. Treatment, Migration, etc; and

Property (P) - It includes ideas denoting the concept of ‘attribute’ – qualitative or quantitative. e.g. Power, Capacity, Property, etc.

(b) a set of rules of syntax with reference to ECs

The Syntax is based on the Ranganathan’s general theory of classification.

(c) a set of indicator digits or notations to denote the ECs and their subdivisions. It is got by POPSI table as given below:

POPSI Table 
0 = Form modifier
1 = General treatment
2 = Phase relation
      2.1 = general
      2.2 = bias
      2.3 = comparison
      2.4 = similarity
      2.5 = difference
      2.6 = application
      2.7 = influence
3 = Time modifier
4 = Entity modifier
5 = Place modifier
6 = Entry
7 = Discipline

(d) a vocabulary control device designated as ‘Classaurus’.

Contents

POPSI (Postulate-Based Permuted Subject Indexing)
  • Format
  • Steps in POPSI (with Example)
  • Conclusion


Format

If A,B,C,D are subject headings (using each of the sought terms) then it will generate the following subject entries.

A
  ABCD

B
  ABCD

C
  ABCD

D
  ABCD

The above format is exactly like KWOC  index, in which the user is required to read the entire chain every time to get the correct context.

Steps in POPSI (with Example)

The index entries according to this system are generated in a systematic manner with the help of following steps of operation.
  1. Analysis
  2. Formalisation
  3. Modulation
  4. Standardisation
  5. Preparation of EOC
  6. Decision about TA
  7. Preparation of EAC
  8. Alphabetisation
Let us examine these stages with the help of a sample title, ‘Chemical treatment of tuberculosis of lungs’.

Analysis
 
Subject indicative expression, the starting point of index generation, may be the title of a paper, a book or any other document. According to the first stage of operation, the expression is analysed to identify the facets in terms of concepts and modifiers. Analysis of the above mentioned example will lead to the following:
D       -        Medicine
E       -        Lungs
A       -        Chemical Treatment
P       -        Tuberculosis

Formalisation

In the stage of formalisation the sequence of components derived by analysis has to be decided. It involves the arrangement of component terms according to the principles of sequence of components indicating the status of each component term. Applying this principle, the components are sequenced in the following manner to obtain the basic chain:
Medicine (D), Lungs (E), Tuberculosis (P of E), Chemical treatment (A on P)

Modulation

Each of the component terms in the analysed and formalised subject headings is added some terms (if necessary) to make their understanding more clear. The above chain after modulation will be:
Medicine (D), Man. Respiratory System. Lungs (E), Disease. Tuberculosis (P of E), Chemical treatment (A on P)

Standardisation

It is concerned with semantics. It helps in the decision of standard terms for synonyms and the terms for reference generation. It is done vocabulary control. In step 3 and 4, classaurus has been suggested to be used. The above chain after this step will be:
Medicine (D), Man. Respiratory System. Lungs (E), Disease. Tuberculosis (P of E), Chemotherapy (=Chemical treatment) (A on P)

Preparation of the EOC (Entry for Organising Classification)

It consists of preparing the entry for generating organising classification by inserting appropriate notations from the POPSI table. The above chain after this step will take the following shape.
7 Medicine, 6 Man. Respiratory System. Lungs, 6.2 Disease. Tuberculosis, 6.2.1 Chemotherapy (=Chemical treatment)

Decision about TA (terms of approach)

This step is concerned with the decision regarding terms of approach for generating successive index entries and references.

In this step ‘Lungs’, ‘Tuberculosis’ and ‘Chemotherapy’ are selected as terms of approach and a cross reference entry is decided to be made for ‘Chemotherapy’.

Preparation of EAC (Entries for Associative Classification)

This step consists of the preparation of entries under each approach terms and references. This step will result in the following entries.

Lungs
          7 Medicine, 6 Man. Respiratory  System. Lungs,
          6.2 Disease. Tuberculosis, 6.2.1 Chemotherapy

Tuberculosis
          7 Medicine, 6 Man. Respiratory  System. Lungs,
          6.2 Disease. Tuberculosis, 6.2.1 Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy
          7 Medicine, 6 Man. Respiratory  System. Lungs,
          6.2 Disease. Tuberculosis, 6.2.1 Chemotherapy

Chemical treatment
          See Chemotherapy

Alphabetization

In this step, all the index entries including references are arranged in a word by word sequence

(i) Chemical treatment
           See Chemotherapy

(ii) Chemotherapy
            7 Medicine…       …

(iv) Lungs
            7 Medicine  …       …

(iv) Tuberculosis
            7 Medicine  …       …

Conclusion

POPSI is certainly an extension of Chain Indexing,  though they differ from each other. POPSI has successfully solved the problem of disappearing chain which was a major criticism against chain indexing. POPSI made the indexing system free from classification scheme because this system is based on the general theory of classification and is not tagged with any classification scheme.


USED FOR
  • Postulate-Based Permuted Subject Indexing

REFERENCES
  1. Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.) 
    Information Access Through The Subject

SEE ALSO

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  • Written 2017-05-04

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Saturday, April 29, 2017

Chain Indexing

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
CHAIN INDEXING   Chain Indexing or Chain Procedure is a mechanical method to derive subject index entries or subject headings from the class number of the document. It was developed by Dr. S.R. Ranganathan. He first mentioned this in his book “Theory of Library Catalogue” in 1938.

In Chain Procedure, the indexer or cataloguer is supposed to start from where the classifier has left. No duplication of work is to be done. He/she has to derive subject headings or class index entries from the digit by digit interpretation of the class number of the document in the reverse direction, to provide the alphabetical approach to the subject of the document.

Ranganathan designed this new method of deriving verbal subject heading in 1934 to provide the subject approach to documents through the alphabetical part of a classified catalogue. This method was distinctly different from the enumerated subject heading systems like Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) or Sears List of Subject Headings (SLSH). He discerned that classification and subject indexing were two sides of the same coin. Classifying a document is the translation of its specific subject into an artificial language of ordinal numbers which results in the formation of a class number linking together all the isolate ideas in the form of a chain. This chain of class numbers is retranslated into its verbal equivalent to formulate a subject heading that represents the subject contents of the document. The class number itself is the result of subject analysis of a document into its facet ideas and linked together by a set of indicator digits, particularly when a classification system like Colon Classification is used for the purpose. As this chain is used for deriving subject entries on the basis of a set of rules and procedures, this new system was called ‘Chain Procedure’. This approach inspired in many other models of subject indexing developed afterward, based upon classificatory principles and postulates.

Chain Indexing was originally intended for use with Colon Classification. However, it may be applied to any scheme of classification whose notation follows a hierarchical pattern.

Contents

Chain Indexing
  • Steps in Chain Indexing
  • Example of Chain Indexing using Colon Classification
  • Merits of Chain Indexing
  • Demerits of Chain Indexing
  • Conclusion


Steps in Chain Indexing

According to Bhattacharya, there are eleven steps involved in Chain Procedure:
  1. Determination of the specific subject of the document.
  2. Expressive name of the subject
  3. Kernel terms
  4. Analysed name of subject
  5. Transformed  name of subject
  6. Standard terms
  7. Determination of links and construction of chain.
  8. Determination of different kinds of links
  9. Derivation of subject headings
  10. Preparation of cross reference entries
  11. Arrangement.
Determination of specific subject of the document - It is done with the help of the title of the document, its table of contents and by a careful perusal of the text. By analysing the subject contents of a document one arrives at its specific subject.

Expressive name of the subject - Naming the specific subject of the document expressively in the natural language.

Kernel terms - Representation of the name of the specific subject in Kernel terms (fundamental components). It is done by removing all the auxiliary words from the title.

Analyzed name of the subject - Determination of the category of each fundamental component according to a set of postulates and principles formulated for this purpose.

Transformed name of the subject - Transforming of the analysed name of subject by rearranging, if necessary, the fundamental components, according to a few additional postulates and principles formulated for the purpose of governing the syntax.

Standard terms - Standardization of each term, in the transformed name of the subject, in accordance with the standard terms used in the preferred scheme of classification.

Determination of links and construction of chain - Representation of class number in the form of a chain in which each link consists of two parts -- the class number and its translation in natural language. The class number and its translation is joined by “=” sign, and these signs are joined by downward arrows.

Determination of the different kinds of links - Determination of different kinds of links such as Sought Link (SL), False Link (FL), Unsought Link (USL) and Missing Link (ML).

FL : A  link is a false link if it ends with a connecting symbol or relation device, etc.

USL : A link in which a user is not likely to approach a document.

ML : A link in a chain-with-gap, corresponding to the missing isolate in the chain.

SL : A link in which a user is likely to approach a document.

Derivation of subject heading - Derivation of the subject heading from each of the sought links in the chain in a reverse rendering process.

Preparation of cross reference entries - In this step subject reference entry is prepared for specific subject entries.

Arrangement - In this last step all entries are merged and arranged in a single alphabetical sequence.


Example of Chain Indexing using Colon Classification

The document entitled ‘Macbeth’ by William Shakespeare, having class number O111,2J64,M will generate the following chain.

O                          =  Literature (SL)

O1                        =  Indo-European literature (USL)

O11                      =  Teutonic literature (USL)

O111                    =  English literature (SL)

O111,                   =  (FL)

O111,2                 =  English drama (SL)

O111,2J64            =  Shakespeare (SL)

O111,2J64,           =  (FL)

O111,2J64,M        =  Macbeth (SL)

Corresponding to these five sought links, the following subject heading or class index entries will be generated by the above chain:

DRAMA, ENGLISH = O111,2

ENGLISH LITERATURE = O111

LITERATURE = O

MACBETH, SHAKESPEARE (William) (1564) = O111,2J64,M

SHAKESPEARE (William) (1564) = O111,2J64


Merits of Chain Indexing
  1. This procedure, i.e., chain indexing can be applied with ease to any classification scheme whose notational symbols indicate the subordination of each step of division e.g. Colon Classification (CC), Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), Library of Congress Classification (LCC), etc.
  2. Chain indexing saves the time of the indexer, as he makes use of the class number provided by the classifier, thus, avoiding duplication of work, in analysing the document and the formulation of class number.
  3. Chain indexing provides alternative approaches through reverse rendering to its classified file.
  4. As chain procedure is based on the structure of the classification scheme and on the terminology found in the schedules, its operation is speedy and semi-mechanical.
  5. Chain procedure is economical, as it drops each term after it has been indexed, thus, avoiding the permutation of component terms.
  6. In the case of chain indexing, only one index heading with complete subject formulation is prepared for a specific document. Other entries are prepared by the successive dropping of terms serve a successfully larger number of specific subjects. This provides the facility for generic as well as specific searches.
  7. Chain procedure is amenable to computerization. Programs have been successfully written to generate subject headings both from class numbers and feature headings following the reverse rendering method.
  8. Chain procedure may be used to derive indexes to classification schemes and books. Similarly, it may be used in formulating headings necessary for guide cards on catalogue, stock room guides, shelf guides, etc., in a systematic way.

Demerits of Chain Indexing
  1. It is totally dependent on a scheme of classification, as a result, it tends to suffer demerits related to the scheme of classification automatically.
  2. The entries prepared through chain indexing has only one specific entry, others are all broad entries.
  3. In chain indexing, sometimes a step of a division may go unrepresented, by a further digit of the class number. This creates the problem of the missing chain.
  4. Reverse rendering of terms, while preparing the entries is confusing to the user.

Conclusion

Chain indexing was first used by the Madras University Library in 1936. It has been widely accepted and used by British National Bibliography (BNB) from 1950-1970, LISA is based on Chain Indexing, Indian National Bibliography (INB) has been practicing chain indexing since 1958. Documentation Research & Training Centre (DRTC) has lately found that chain procedure is fully amenable to computerization. Programs have been written to generate subject heading from class numbers following reverse rendering method.


USED FOR
  • Chain Procedure

REFERENCES
  1. Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.) 
    Information Access Through The Subject

SEE ALSO

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ARTICLE HISTORY
  • Written 2017-04-29

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